kafranbel-aug2011.jpgシリア緊急募金、およびそのための情報源
UNHCR (国連難民高等弁務官事務所)
WFP (国連・世界食糧計画)
MSF (国境なき医師団)
認定NPO法人 難民支援協会

……ほか、sskjzさん作成の「まとめ」も参照

お読みください:
「なぜ、イスラム教徒は、イスラム過激派のテロを非難しないのか」という問いは、なぜ「差別」なのか。(2014年12月)

「陰謀論」と、「陰謀」について。そして人が死傷させられていることへのシニシズムについて。(2014年11月)

◆知らない人に気軽に話しかけることのできる場で、知らない人から話しかけられたときに応答することをやめました。また、知らない人から話しかけられているかもしれない場所をチェックすることもやめました。あなたの主張は、私を巻き込まずに、あなたがやってください。

【お知らせ】本ブログは、はてなブックマークの「ブ コメ一覧」とやらについては、こういう経緯で非表示にしています。(こういうエントリをアップしてあってもなお「ブ コメ非表示」についてうるさいので、ちょい目立つようにしておきますが、当方のことは「揉め事」に巻き込まないでください。また、言うまでもないことですが、当方がブ コメ一覧を非表示に設定することは、あなたの言論の自由をおかすものではありません。)

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2011年06月14日

「"ダマスカスのゲイ・ガール" 騒動」をどう見るべきか

というわけで、「ダマスカス在住、35歳のレズビアン、アミナ・アラフ」を名乗って書かれていた「私のリアルな生活」のブログがスコットランド在住の40歳の男性によって書かれたまったくのでっち上げだったことが判明し、さらにおまけのように、「アミナ」とオンラインでの交流はあったが、「アミナ」のブログとは全く別に米国で運営されていた同性愛者向け情報サイトの管理人である「ポーラ」もまた50代男性だったという事実が明らかになって、誰か真面目にやれ、という感じなのだが、「ポーラ」は別として、「アミナ」はまったくシャレになっていない、という点について。

とにかく記事が多いので何を読んだらいいかよくわからない状態なのだが、一部、一応メモ。

米リベラル派ジューイッシュ、ミッチェル・プリトニックによる分析(これだけ読んどけばいいっていうくらいに充実している。いつもながらこの人は明快):
A Damaging Hoax: A Gay Girl in Syria
June 13, 2011 by Mitchell Plitnick
http://mitchellplitnick.com/2011/06/13/a-damaging-hoax-a-gay-girl-in-syria/

中東和平と人権問題に取り組んできたプリトニックは、「アメリカ人の発言」では聞く耳をもたれなくても、「現地の人の声」ならば人々に届くものだ、というコンテクストで、「アラブの革命」での「現地のTwitterユーザー」や「現地からの情報」についてエジプトの@Sandmonkeyなどを例示し、「アミナ」になりきっていたおっさん(マックマスター)が「現地の人」を名乗ることで人々に信用されていたという事実から、あのブログが偽物であったことによるダメージについて考察している。
Arab bloggers and writers can have a powerful impact. Look at how much impact the twitter activist called "Sandmonkey" had on information coming out of the Egyptian protests, or how much a journalist like Mona Eltahawy was able to provide an Arab face to those events and bring people into support for them. If I, or any other white American, had uttered those same words, the weight would have been considerably lessened.

That's where the real damage of MacMaster's hoax lies, and where his real ethical problem stems from. ...

... while I, in my cynicism, may sometimes believe the ends justify the means, it is not so in this case. A lesbian in Syria still has to face both the threat of repression for her identity from her government as well as the reality that her oppression will be used in the West as it always has been - to reinforce the image of Arabs as backward and narrow-minded religious fanatics who need to be "educated" by us. Not to mention the use Israel makes of LGBT issues to support its image as "the only democracy in the Middle East." (Israel certainly does offer far more freedom for LGBT folks than its neighbors, but this hardly justifies its occupation).

Macmaster made that situation worse. He apologized, and that's all he can do. Now, it's up to us to try to turn his crime into a positive development. We do that by hearing Arab voices and making sure our neighbors do too, even if they are saying things we don't always want to hear.

シリアの同性愛者の女性は、自国政府からの弾圧の可能性に直面すると同時に、自身への抑圧が西洋において、「アラブ人は遅れていて、心が狭い宗教バカで、われわれ西洋人によって“教育される”必要のある者たちだ」というイメージを強化するために利用されるという現実にも直面しなければならない。イスラエルが「中東で唯一の民主主義国家」という自国のイメージを維持するためにLGBT問題を持ち出すのはいわずもがなである。(確かにイスラエルは、周辺国よりもずっと多くの自由をLGBTの人々に与えているが、だからといって占領が正当化されるわけではない。)

マックマスターはその状況を悪化させた。彼は謝罪したが、それ以上のことはできないのだ。というわけで、彼の犯罪を何か前向きな進展に変えようとする役目を担っているのはわたしたちだ。私たちはたとえ相手がこちらの聞きたくないことを言おうとも、アラブの人々の声を聞くことで、そして隣人たちもそうするようにすることで、事態をポジティヴな方向に動かす。


続いて、上記のプリトニックの文章に引用されているGayMiddleEast.comの中の人たちによる、シリアのLGBTに対する「管理」、「弾圧」の説明(「アミナ」がおっさんであることが判明する前に書かれたもの)と、おっさんへの怒り:
From Damascus with Love: Blogging in a Totalitarian State
By Sami Hamwi and Daniel Nassar, 12.6.11
http://gaymiddleeast.com/news/news%20317.htm
Blogging in Syria has been forbidden by law for more than eight years. As internet started to flourish, many Syrians started to use internet spaces and blogs to write personal thoughts, poetry, short stories... etc. unaware of that fact, but they remained safe as the authorities only monitored political and human rights blogs. LGBT bloggers can manage to keep safe only if their blogs were meant for gossip and entertainment, but they might have to face different kind of difficulties if they reported news or engaged into LGBT rights activism. As soon as any blog starts to attract attention, the agony with authorities’ interference starts.

すごいよね。「ブログは非合法」をデフォルトにしておいて、「しかし個人の思索や詩、短編小説などは書いてもお咎めなし」とし、「政治的なもの、人権問題を扱ったものをターゲットにする」。ある程度の「自由」を与えた上で、泳がせて捕まえるんだから、洗練されている。

「アミナ」(になりきっていたおっさん)がやったことについては、ダニエルさんの執筆で:
Because of you, Mr. MacMaster, a lot of the real activists in the LGBT community became under the spotlight of the authorities in Syria. These activists, among them myself, had to change so much in their attitude and their lives to protect themselves from the positional harm your little stunt created. You have, sir, put a lot of lives, mine and some friends included, in harm's way so you can play your little game of fictional writing.

This attention you brought forced me back to the closet on all the social media websites I use; cause my family to go into a frenzy trying to force me back into the closet and my friends to ask me for phone numbers of loved ones and family members so they can call them in case I disappeared myself. Many people who are connected to me spent nights worrying about me and many fights I had with my family were because you wanted to play your silly game of the media.

You feed the foreign media an undeniable dish of sex, religion and politics and you are now leaving us with this holier-than-thou semi-apologize with lame and shallow excuses of how you wanted to bring attention to the right people on the ground. I'm sorry, you're not on the ground, you don't know the ground and you don't even belong to the culture of the people on the group.

You took away my voice, Mr. MacMaster, and the voices of many people who I know. ...


さらにこの「怒りの声」を書いたダニエルさんは次の記事も書いている:
The impact of audacity: The Amina story and its effect on the LGBT community in Syria
By Daniel Nassar, 13.6.2011
http://gaymiddleeast.com/news/news%20318.htm
Let me explain the multiple harms Mr. MacMaster and his fictional blog enforced upon the LGBT community in Syria and the Arab blogging community in general.

On one side; you forced the LGBT community into the current political game in the region; a game that the small and weak LGBT community in Syria cannot handle; authorities cracking down on whomever they believe is attacking the Syrian regime are now adding the LGBT community to the circle of possible threats; LGBT people on the ground, whether they are politically active or not, are now in grave danger that they might be seen as Amina... For years, I have been on Twitter with my real name and my real picture; tweeting proudly about LGBT rights in the region specially and around the world generally; since the beginning of this whole Amina parade; in fears of being exposed, more than I already am, I changed both my avatar and my handle’s name.

On another side: your fabricated story added to the stigma already existing in the minds of the society members of Syria that homosexuals are sinful, lying, dishonest characters. ...

Finally; to be able to publish this story, and to be quoted on other stories over the past couple of days, editors from across the globe needed to talk to me; to verify if I’m a real person or just another fake character like Amina; the trust between foreign media and those activists, who are needing any support they can get to continue their brave struggle, is gone forever because of Amina. ...

The real people in the LGBT community in this region are damaged because of you, Mr. MacMaster; your practical joke is not harmless; it actual is very harmful. ...


それから、英ガーディアン、ブライアン・ウィテカー(真綿で包んだ「カス・ブログが」という全否定):
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jun/13/gay-girl-in-damascus-hoax-blog
I looked at the blog myself from time to time, though I never found it particularly useful as a source of information. Even so, it was an interesting read and – recognising that the writer probably had legitimate reasons for disguising "her" identity – there seemed no reason to doubt that the author was a westernised Arab lesbian.

"I feel that I have created an important voice for issues that I feel strongly about," MacMaster says in his mea culpa statement, adding that he was merely trying to "illuminate" things "for a western audience".

This does not bear much scrutiny. Plenty of gay blogs and websites have appeared in the Middle East during the last few years. In the LGBT area MacMaster's blog added nothing significantly new to what was already available online and if he felt there were matters still to be "illuminated" he could easily have written about them without pretending to be someone he was not.

...

MacMaster says: "While the narrative voice may [sic] have been fictional, the facts on this blog are true and not misleading as to the situation on the ground." The sad part is that picture he gives is broadly accurate and there are indeed lesbian women to be found in the Middle East much like "Amina". But he has not helped to spread awareness of these realities; he has undermined it.


それから、KABOBfest, ここは在外含めアラブの人たちがやってるグループ・ブログ的なサイトで、私も詳しいことは知らないがTwitterでときどき遭遇する。

ここはまず、騒動が始まったころ(写真が別人のだとわかったころ)、Sanaさんというメンバーによる次の記事をアップしている。

The Gay Girl in Damascus Who Wasn't
By Sana, June 10, 2011
http://www.kabobfest.com/2011/06/the-gay-girl-in-damascus-who-wasnt.html

この時点では、このサイトは「アミナ」に好意的だった。「いろいろ問題はあるようだけど、彼女はシリアに関心を向けさせた」云々……えー、そのような事実があったのかどうか。北米の話かな。(北米では、「リベラル」がよく読むHuff Poとかで「アミナ」は喧伝された。)

4月に「アミナ」が自ブログにアップした「オバマ大統領、お申し出はありがたいのですが、お断りします」という介入反対論をKABOBfestも転載している。実際「アミナ」のこの記事はアラブの人々の間で非常に評価されていて――「アメリカ人」のハーフの女性がこんなことを書いているのか、という驚きもあっただろうが――別のところでも転載されているということだ。(私はちょっと読んだ記憶はあるが、特に印象には残っていない。)

しかるに、「アミナ」が40歳のおっさんのなりすまし(なりきり)による偽ものだったことが発覚したあとに掲載された、Ali Abbas and Assia Boundaouiの2人の連名による記事(このサイトのレギュラーではなくゲストで、彼らはNYC拠点)は、「アミナ」のことを「西洋好みのくだらない猿芝居」的に、ばっさりと否定している。

A Gay (Straight) Girl (Man) in Damascus (Edinburgh)
June 13, 2011
Contributed by Ali Abbas and Assia Boundaoui
http://www.kabobfest.com/2011/06/a-gay-girl-in-damascus.html
Neo-Orientalist Media Titillation

Regardless of whatever lazy apology MacMaster nervously reaches for, Amina was never intended to be a fictional character for the betterment of women or LGBT people in the Middle East. She is a western fantasy intended to arouse and titillate the western sensibilities to feel, not act. This is the ultimate neo-orientalism as it not only re-imagines an existing geographic location, but invents an entire human landscape.

...

The Violent Aftermath

Ultimately MacMaster has aided the Assad regime and other dictatorial bodies of government by confirming what the Arab dictators have been saying all along: that the uprisings are simply a conceived Western ploy. With the creation of the “Amina dummy,” MacMaster has managed to turn anti-revolutionary regime propaganda into truth by providing evidence that certain narratives of the revolution are fabrications of the West. Because this revolution is being fought on a battle field of (mis)information and truth, every single contribution is a decisive battle in which the outcome of an entire people is at stake – something MacMaster should be held accountable for jeopardizing.

The Arab revolutions are not events for the Western gaze to speculate and draw inspiration – they are real lived and often-times bloody moments that shape, destroy and rebuild the lives of living, breathing people.


さて、「アミナ」の「非介入論」を高く評価したブログには、jadaliyya.comもある。ここは学術誌(査読あり)のThe Arab Studies Journalと関連のある、アラブ専門のアカデミックの人たちによる時事情報サイトで、次の記事が誰かから推薦されていた。

Gays, Islamists, and The Arab Spring: What Would A Revolutionary Do?
by Maya Mikdashi and R.M
http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/1836/gays-islamists-and-the-arab-spring_what-would-a-re
While her narratives about her life as a gay woman in Syria and about being a gay Muslim captured the imagination of the west, it was her more overtly political polemics that attracted the attention of readers in the Arab world (and particularly the progressive queers among them), posts likeThanks, but No Thanks Mr. Obama and Pinkwashing Assad."

非介入論のほかに高く評価されたのが「ピンクウォッシュ」についての文章だ。ピンク・ウォッシュとは、イスラエルが同性愛者への規制をなるべく少なくしていることを「人権を重視する」とのたまい、イスラエルがパレスチナに対して日常的に行っている占領者としての暴力をそれと相殺する、という薄汚い手法のことだ。サルワンで家屋取り壊しでパレスチナ人が追い出されていることが問題だというと、「しかしパレスチナは同性愛を認めてないだろう」と言う。2010年のガザ支援船に対するコマンドーの攻撃のときは、私もかなり参った(「攻撃装備のない船舶にコマンドーを送り込むことは国際法違反ではないか」、「しかもそれは公海上で行われたのではないか」といった問題提起に対し、ゲイの人権がどうのこうのといわれてもまったく答えにも何にもなりゃしないのに、そういうことに気づかないナイーヴな人たちがいるんだよね。)(で、そのピンクウォッシュについての「アミナ」の記事も読んでみたけど、うん、多分私、この人の文体が嫌いなんだと思う。この内容なら、言葉数半分でよくないか。)

jadaliyya.comの記事は次のように結ばれている。
Let us not forget how we, as queers and as women, were used as justifications for invasions (Afghanistan), the promotion of democracy at the barrel of a gun (Iraq), and military occupation (Palestine). We must learn, again, to refuse to allow parts of our personhood (sexuality, gender) to be mobilized at the expense of other parts of our personhood (the Palestinian, the Arab, the working class). We must refuse this fragmentation and self-alienation. For years, progressive queer activists have been pushing back against the use of gay rights and the mobilization of the international gay rights community to promote Israel as a liberal democracy. Such state promoted discourse seeks to obfuscate the realities of occupation, apartheid, land theft and demolitions, displacement, and racism increasingly enshrined in Israeli law. We should be attuned to the danger of a similar discourse, which cleaves human from political rights and raises one above the other, being used to promote anxiety about gay and human rights in the Arab world in the event that political rights are granted to all Arabs. Gays, like women, are becoming a readily deployable tool in service of geopolitical interests that are oppressive and anti-emancipatory. As people concerned with fighting all forms, and all networks of injustice, we must not allow that to happen.


ほか、何本か記事があるのだが、とてもじゃないが読みきれる量ではないし、そもそも書かれていることが同じなのでいいかげんに飽きてきた。タイトルとURLと抜粋だけ。

The media gets a poster girl, Amina Arraf, for the Syrian Revolution
Published June 10th, 2011 - 20:16 GMT
http://www1.albawaba.com/media-gets-poster-girl-amina-arraf-syrian-revolution-377859
What we at Al Bawaba are concerned by as the rumor mill heats up on overdrive is the question of why this is of such interest at this time, and we would venture to say that, whether this woman proves to be some amalgam of fictional and real contemporary cyber activist, what she has provided is a human face for the media to latch on to: similarly as did Nada of Iran’s Green Revolution and Iman Obeidi of Libya and Taraneh Mousavi of also Iran. All these faces made compelling and haunting viewing and audiences were thereby more drawn to otherwise dry announcements of numbers, deaths, sects and run of the mill coverage of the wider general story. Every mass scale narrative of suffering and strife needs a human face, even poster girl/ boy to engage and compel people in a human story that allows the public to feel more involved and vested in another country’s events. It is probably safe to assume that the debate about the disappeared 35 year-old 'Amina' is hardly taking place in Syria, as much as it is raging outside of it, for the blogger’s writing more appealed to the outside world familiar with her American references and Middle class mind-frame.


Where is Amina? Who is Amina? Why Amina? Cases of other 'fake' bloggers
Published June 11th, 2011 - 16:05 GMT
http://www1.albawaba.com/where-amina-who-amina-why-amina-cases-other-fake-bloggers-377893
This is very much what Amina has been doing in her own way.

I became aware of her site a couple of months ago when I started researching Arab bloggers, and I was initially intrigued when my search for political blogs kept taking me to “Gay Girl in Damascus.”

A Foreign Policy article entitled “Here’s your reading list, Mr. President” picked her among top Arab Blogs that President Barrack Obama should keep an eye on. She was also often quoted and referred to by international media outlets for her coverage of the demonstrations in Syria.

えー、震災後、FPを読んでる時間がなくなっていたのですが、私は「アミナ」のブログが現地情報として参照されていた記事は見た記憶はないです。「アミナ」の紹介の記事でしか見てない。

最後、これは重量級で、ほんとはこれについて書きたかったんだけどもう無理。疲れた。

06/13/2011 (9:21 am)
Understanding #amina
http://www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/2011/06/13/understanding-amina/

Global Voicesの「中の人」的な立場からの論考です。ただしクソ長い。アミナについて知ってる人は、To the extent that there is undercoverage of Syriaから後だけ読めばいいと思うけど。

Both citizen and broadcast media got Amina’s story wrong. The Guardian, in particular, has much to answer for: the May 6th story by “Katherine Marsh” lionizing Amina doesn’t mention the reporter never met Amina in person. Given the use of a pseudonym to protect the reporter and a Damascus byline, it’s hard to read the story as anything but a verification of Amina’s identity, implying the reporter met with her subject. As of this morning, the Guardian has run a long story on MacMaster’s identity, but hasn’t amended, corrected or retracted the May 6th story. Today’s story includes an explanation of the initial interview, which I think should have accompanied the original piece: “Katherine Marsh, the pseudonym of a journalist who until recently was reporting for the Guardian from Syria, interviewed Amina by email in May after being put in touch with her by a trusted Syrian contact who also believed the blogger to be real. Marsh said that many steps had been taken to try to verify Amina’s identity, including repeated requests to meet, at some personal risk to the journalist, and talk on Skype.”

Credit for discovering MacMaster’s deception goes both to citizen and broadcast media. The Washington Post had been pursuing MacMaster at the same time Electronic Intifiada and Liz Henry did, and their attempts to interview him generated some of the pressure that may have led him to end his hoax. Carvin works for NPR, focused on social media, and the hard work he and colleagues did in reporting the story speaks to the sort of old/new media cooperation that’s going to be critical to reporting in a participatory media environment. But the sheer effort necessary to debunk the story is going to serve as a caution to all news outlets that seek to use citizen voices to tell stories in the future.



※この記事は

2011年06月14日

にアップロードしました。
1年も経ったころには、書いた本人の記憶から消えているかもしれません。


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【2003年に翻訳した文章】The Nuclear Love Affair 核との火遊び
2003年8月14日、John Pilger|ジョン・ピルジャー

私が初めて広島を訪れたのは,原爆投下の22年後のことだった。街はすっかり再建され,ガラス張りの建築物や環状道路が作られていたが,爪痕を見つけることは難しくはなかった。爆弾が炸裂した地点から1マイルも離れていない河原では,泥の中に掘っ立て小屋が建てられ,生気のない人の影がごみの山をあさっていた。現在,こんな日本の姿を想像できる人はほとんどいないだろう。

彼らは生き残った人々だった。ほとんどが病気で貧しく職もなく,社会から追放されていた。「原子病」の恐怖はとても大きかったので,人々は名前を変え,多くは住居を変えた。病人たちは混雑した国立病院で治療を受けた。米国人が作って経営する近代的な原爆病院が松の木に囲まれ市街地を見下ろす場所にあったが,そこではわずかな患者を「研究」目的で受け入れるだけだった。

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